Plato and Aristotle. You can make a case that all of Western philosophy is connected to the two dominant tendencies in these two men.
Plato stands for mystical universalism and a thirst for utopia. Aristotle stands for rationalist empiricism and a tendency toward nihilism. (Although Nietzsche and Heidegger might say I've gotten the symptoms right but the outcomes reversed...)
In both cases, you end up with nothing. That is, u-topia means no-place in Greek. And nihil-ism
is entrancement with no-thing, in Latin. Enantiodromia, as Heraclitus and Jung would say.
Our history can be read, on one level, as a fluctuation between these two extremes.
Gautama described his system as The Middle Way, avoiding both attachment to pleasures and attachment to asceticism. Not a bad idea, steering clear of both utopianism and nihilism.
*Its companion piece is The Dispute over the Sacrament, which images the overtly religious side of the Athens-and-Jerusalem dialectic in the West since the 4th century. Not to be underestimated.